Temīda bez tiesnešiem 41

Tiesnešu noturību augstā morālā līmenī un savā amatā panākt liekas vienkārši - izvelkot tiesu varu no finansiālās aizdurves, palielinot konkurenci, tiesnešu atlasei atjaunojot tiesu amata kandidātus un nodrošinot karjeras iespējas. Nepieciešama arī strādājošo tiesnešu atestācija, jo darba procesā rodas problēmas. Un nevajag izlikties, ka kolēģi plašākā lokā nezin, kuri tiesneši dzer un kuri ņem kukuļus.

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Lai tiesātu Temīdu, kā to savā pētījumā ir mēģinājis darīt Valts Kalniņš, jānoskaidro, vai mūsu rokās ir visi instrumenti, kas nepieciešami šādam netipiskam pasākumam. Vai mums ir Eiropas Savienības kandidātvalsts cienīgs tiesnešu korpuss? Vai padomju laika tiesneši ir spējuši pārorientēties darbam jauno prasību apstākļos? Vai pēc 1990. gada darbu sākuši tiesneši ir labākie no juristiem, kas varēja nonākt tiesnešu amatos?

Vienīgais likums, par kuru ir teikts, ka tā nepieņemšanas sekas ir valdības krišana - ir valsts budžeta likums. Ielūkojoties iepriekšējo gadu likumos un projektā 2002. gadam redzam, ka prioritārs ir viss - tikai ne tiesu vara. Finansu jomā tā nav līdzvērtīga likumdevējam un izpildvarai. Tā nav pat nobīdīta otrajā plānā, tā atrodas aizdurvē. Par līdzvērtību te nevar būt ne runas. Taču par maz ir uzstādīt diagnozi. Kā ārstēt - tas ir galvenais jautājums? Mēģināšu piedāvāt savu skatījumu.

Kam jāveic tiesnešu kandidātu atlase?
Kas veic šo sarežģīto darbu - to nedara paši tiesneši, precīzāk sakot šis jautājums nav nodots tiesu varas rokās. Jaunie juristi sapņo par advokāta palīga un tālāk par zvērināta advokāta karjeru. Daudzi tiesnešu kandidāti tiek rekrutēti no tiesas sēžu sekretāru skaita. Tādiem juristiem dominē formālais jurisprudences motīvs - lietas jāatraksta; pēc kļūšanas par tiesnesi lietu atrakstīšanas turpinās. Pašiem tiesnešu pašpārvaldes orgāniem likums to neuzliek par pienākumu, tiesnešiem tam nav laika, liela slodze, arī psiholoģiski tiesneši to neuzskata par savu pienākumu. Tādejādi tiek pārkāpts varu dalīšanas fundamentālais princips - izpildvarai tiesu varas vietā jādara tikai tas, ko nevar izdarīt tiesu vara. Tieslietu ministrijas loma nedz likumā, nedz praksē tiesnešu kandidātu atlasē nav pietiekoša - vāja Tiesu pārvalde, nav kadru no kā izvēlēties, Tieslietu ministrijā lielākoties strādā studenti, jo maksā mazas algas; sakarā ar to, ka maksā mazas algas - strādā studenti. Atkal ideju trūkums un ārvalstu prakses neizmantošana - likumā jāparedz iespēja tiesnesi uz noteiktu laiku komandēt praksē vai uz mācībām uz ārzemēm, kā arī darbā uz Tieslietu ministrijas ierēdņu amatiem, saglabājot tiesneša vietu, darba algu un citus sociālos apstākļus.

Kā jāveic tiesnešu kandidātu atlase?
Tiesnešu kandidātu atlases mehānismam jābūt balstītam galvenokārt konkurences palielināšanā. Konkurence var veidoties tikai uz iekārojamu amatu. Jāveicina tiesnešu amatu iekārojamība. Tiesnešu kopējais skaits valstī nav liels (ap 360), mēs varam tiem nodrošināt ne tikai pieklājīgas, bet tiešām labas algas, nepieciešamās piemaksas par stāžu un klasi, utt. Bet šobrīd - viņiem nav iespēju izcīnīt pat likumā katram ierēdnim noteikto atvaļinājuma pabalstu. Arī labi darba apstākļi - atsevišķs kabinets, savs dators, NAIS, licenzētas legālas programmas nav nekāda greznība. Uz katru tiesnesi vismaz 2-3 darbinieku, kuri arī labi jāatalgo un jānodrošina. (Šobrīd tiesu sēžu sekretāre saņem ap 90 latus). Un nepieciešams regulēt tiesnešu slodzi.

Kā jāveicina tiesnešu karjera?
Jebkurā amatā bez karjeras (attīstības) savā profesijā nekas neiznāks. Atjaunojams tiesu amata kandidāta amats - tā ir persona, kura 2-3 gadus stažējas tiesā, lai varētu tikt iecelta tiesneša vai prokurora amatā. Tas saistīts ar praksi, stāžu, eksāmeniem. Tikai no tiesu amatu kandidātiem vajadzētu atlasīt nākamos tiesnešus. Būtiski jādiferencē dažāda stāža un amatu tiesnešu algas, piemaksas par klasēm un stāžu. Bez tam jārada tiesnešiem reālas izaugsmes iespējas - rajona tiesa - apgabaltiesa - palāta - senāts. Tas nav panākams tikai ar algu starpību, bet arī tai ir jābūt lielākai, ja bieži tiesneši aizbildinās pāriet uz augstāka līmeņa tiesu tikai 20 -30 latu dēļ. Jādiferencē ne tikai algas, arī slodzei būtiski jāsamazinās, bet tehnisko darbinieku un konsultantu algai un skaitam jāpieaug, kabinetiem un augstāka līmeņa tiesu ēkām jābūt ne tikai ērtām, bet gan greznām, gan prestižām, tiesu budžetiem - neatkarīgiem un nepakļautiem izpildvaras iegribām. Un iespējai braukt apgūt ārvalstu pieredzi.

Kā panākt tiesnešu noturību?
Tiesnešu noturību augstā morālā līmenī un savā amatā panākt liekas vienkārši - izpildot iepriekš minētos noteikumus. Tomēr rodas problēmas arī pašā darba procesā - pēc kāda laika uzzinām, ka tiesnesis ir dzērājs, vai arī šī vai citu iemeslu dēļ nespēj pabeigt noformēt lietas. Vai arī - tiesnesis ne tikai ņem, bet pat prasa kukuļus. Un nevajag izlikties, ka kolēģi plašākā lokā nezin, kuri tiesneši dzer un kuri ņem kukuļus. No vienas puses prasām tiesu neatkarību, no otras jau pēc trijiem gadiem apstiprinām uz mūžu. Šeit nepieciešams vēl kāds starpposms. Ne negatīvs - iecelšana parlamentā, bet sava veida atestācija. Arī pilnvarotās amatpersonas nav ar pilsonisku drosmi. Maz, precīzāk - nesavlaicīgi, tiek ierosinātas disciplinārlietas. Bet kad augonis jau samilzis, tad tas plīst ar troksni.

Tomēr esmu optimists. Likumdevēju, izpildu un tiesu varai aktīvāk jāsadarbojas, izstrādājot nepieciešamās likumu izmaiņas.

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zuze 28.09.2001 17:02
Pilnigi piekritu piezimei par tam greznajam telpam ka baigi svarigu lietu - vai tad par smalku kabinetu tiesnesis butu jaciena? Ko tad mes ar sadu gajienu gribetu apmanit? Man daudz svarigak liktos ieguldit naudu tiesnesu izglitiba, lai vini vismaz Latvijas parakstitas starptautiskas konvencijas izlasa. Bet cien. Mucina kungam man ir jautajums - kapec sis skaistas receptes vins nav istenojis sava pasreizeja deputata darba Saeima - vai tad vins ka Juridiskas komisijas priekssedetajs nav spejigs ierosinat nepieciesamos likuma grozijumus un panakt tiem atbalstu valdosaja koalicija, kuras sastava ietilpst vina partija ar premjeru prieksgala? Un tiesi valdibas koalicija ari lemj par to, ka dalit valsts naudu - ko izvilkt pirmaja plana un ko iestumt aizdurve. Pedejie notikumi ASV rada, ka no milzigajiem aizsardzibas budzetiem un superbrunosanas liela drosiba nerodas, tapec varbut kadu dalu no armijai atveletas naudas varetu novirzit tiesnesu izglitosanai un konkuretspejigai darba apmaksai, jo efektiva tiesu vara ir drosibas jautajums, kas daudz tiesak skar katru valsts iedzivotaju, neka tas, vai mazskaitligajam, bet brasajam specvienibam tiks nopirkts kads jauns lielgabals.

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rausis 28.09.2001 14:10
Būtu jau labi, ja visu varētu atrisināt ar regulāriem ārvalstu komandējumiem un plašām, greznām telpām.. Tomēr atļaujiet šaubīties par šo tiesnešu darba kvalitātes uzlabošanos, jo diez vai cilvēki, kuri pieraduši nedarīt, darīs, ja viņiem nebūs vajadzības izķepuroties. Un ko darīt ar tiesnešiem, kuri dzer, ņem kukuļus, bet ir iecelti uz mūžu? Var jau solīt izķert katru melno avi, taču kā jau portāla bildē teikts - vārna vārnai acī neknābs. Domāju, ka liela problēma ir arī likumdevēju nespēja likvidēt stresaino un koruptīvo noteikumu vidi - muļļāšanos ar krimināllikumu, kriminālprocesa likumu uc. Un vispārējais nihilisms diez vai mudina tiesnešus būt godīgiem, jo tas taču nav modē...

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