Migrantu un bēgļu dehumanizācijas metaforas šodienas Latvijā 63

Latvijas valsts esot noslēgts trauks, kura saturu negatīvi ietekmēšot "migrantu plūsmas". Tēzes un video no 10.septembrī Žaņa Lipkes memoriālā notikušās Olgas Procevskas lekcijas.

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Publicēju Olgas Procevskas (PhD komunikāciju zinātnē) galvenās lekcijas tēzes. Pilns lekcijas teksts būs pieejams Laikmetīgās literatūras un filozofijas žurnālā Punctum:

1. Tā sauktos "savējos" cilvēkus mēs uztveram par cilvēciskākiem nekā "svešos". Cilvēki ir tendēti "savējos" redzēt unikāli cilvēciskas kvalitātes, kamēr "svešajos" tās mēdz apšaubīt.

2. Latvijas inteliģence 20.gadsimta beigās un arī šobrīd nereti izmanto trauka jeb konteinera metaforu, lai apzīmētu Latviju. Tā ir telpa, kas ne tikai pastāv, bet arī kādam "pieder".

Tā ir noslēgta telpa, kurā rodas iekšējās vides diskomforts, ja notiek pārmaiņas. Tās vajadzētu apturēt, paturot noslēgtību. Viss, kas apdraud noslēgtību, ir negatīvi vērtējams.


3. Lai aprakstītu Padomju laikā notikušo imigrāciju uz Latviju, Latvijas inteliģence izmanto ūdens plūdu metaforas. Imigranti kā plūdi, kas tiek iepludināti Latvijā - noslēgtajā traukā. Padomju laikā notikušās imigrācijas dēļ, Latvijas sabiedrībā migrācijas tēmas tiek uztvertas īpaši jūtīgi.

Imigrācijas plūsmas tiek uztvertas nevis kā nelielas tērcītes, bet gan Cunami, lai gan runa ir par 250 - 776 patvēruma meklētājiem, kuri Latvijai būtu jāuzņem 2 gadu laikā.


4. Šobrīd imigranti (ekonomiskie imigranti un patvēruma meklētāji) medijos tiek dehumanizēti - turpinot izmantot ūdens plūdu metaforu, cilvēki tiek salīdzināti ar ūdens pilieniem. Imigranti kā objekti, kuriem nav tās pašas tiesības, kā citiem cilvēkiem. Plūdi kā masveidīga parādība ar lielu pārspēku. Metaforas lietotāji uztraucas, ka būs diskomforts - plūdi mainīs viņu dzīvi. Te parādās arī šķietamais "pamattautas" vājums - apdraudējuma sajūta, nespēja kontrolēt situāciju un paturēt noslēgtību pret ārējās vides ietekmēm, aizsargāties no nevēlamām izmaiņām.

5. Arī citās ES valstīs, ES politikas diskusijās un starptautiskajos medijos nereti izmantota metafora imigrāciju apzīmēt ar plūdiem. Savukārt, Eiropai tiek piemērota cietokšņa metafora. To ES rīcībpolitikas dokumentos neatradīsim, taču tas ir nolasāms ES rīcībpolitikas pieejās.

Ja Eiropa ir cietoksnis, un Latvija ir trauks, tad Latvija ir cietoksnis cietoksnī - daļa sabiedrības, politiķu, inteliģences un mediju kā vienīgo risinājumu redz nepieciešamību atvairīt gan ārējos apdraudējumus, gan "Briseles" uzspiestos ES cietokšņa "iekšējās kārtības noteikumus".


6. Šo metaforu lietotāji uzskata, ka vislabāk katram ir dzīvot tur, kur viņš/ viņa piedzimis. Pret bēgļiem ir pozitīvāka attieksme, jo viņi bēg no kara, tāpēc pelnījuši palīdzību. Tomēr pret ekonomiskajiem imigrantiem ir negatīva attieksme, jo tie esot "vieglās dzīves meklētāji", lai arī izmisums riskēt ar savu dzīvību, lai tiktu līdz Eiropai to liek apšaubīt.

7. Alternatīvas, lai neizmantotu imigrantus dehumanizējošas metaforas - redzēt cilvēku individuālos un daudzveidīgos stāstus, nevis imigrantu plūsmas kā nekontrolējamu masu.

Tas var veicināt empātiju, kas ir katra individuāla cilvēka gribas rezultāts - to nevar veicināt ar spiedienu vai emocionāli sakāpinātām diskusijām, kurā cilvēki nav atvērti ieklausīties citu viedokļos, bet tikai "iecementē" savas pārliecības.


Olgas Procevskas analīze nav vispārināma, jo tā veidota bez sistēmiskas visu mediju publikāciju par migrācijas tēmām izpētes.

Video no lekcijas pieejams šeit (lekcija sākas 24.minūtē).

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Olgas Procevskas analīze nav vispārināma, pati viņa visu vispārina. Ja šo it kā bēgļu kustība būtu kontrolēta, tad varētu paskatīties uz katruindividuāli. Tagad tās ir masas, kurus nezin kāpēc sadala ES. Laida iekšā Eiropā masu vai individuālu cilvēku?

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