Iezīmētā identitāte 94

Pase sabiedrības attieksmi pret čigāniem nemainīs. Romu pases ir izdevīgas tikai tās izdevējiem, kas par katru dokumentu no tās saņēmējiem iekasē naudu.

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Pēc vairākus gadus ilgušām diskusijām valdība beidzot ir nolēmusi Latvijā sākt ieviest elektroniskās identifikācijas kartes. Tās būs vienlaikus gan personu apliecinošs dokuments, gan arī tās varēs izmantot e-parakstam. Kamēr valdība diskutē, cik un kāda veida identifikācijas dokumenti Latvijas iedzīvotājiem ir nepieciešami, sabiedriskās organizācijas ir sākušas izsniegt pašas savus dokumentus. Piemēram, čigāni var iegādāties Starptautiskās Romu Savienības (SRS) izgatavotās romu pases, kam, pēc to izdevēju domām, būtu jākļūst par apstiprinājumu pases turētāju tautībai un jāapliecina nācijas gatavība dot ieguldījumu pasaules attīstībā.


Katram savu pasi

Romu pases par 30 eiro savā īpašumā var iegūt ikviens pasaules iedzīvotājs, kas sevi uzskata par čigānu un vēlas, lai viņa identitāti apstiprina īpašs dokuments. Saskaņā ar kopienas redzamā pārstāvja Normunda Rudēviča sniegto informāciju raidījumam Nekā Personīga, šobrīd esot iespiests aptuveni vienas miljons pasu, no kurām Latvijā izsniegti vairāki desmiti.[1] Turklāt jautājums par „romu pasēm” jau šobrīd ir izraisījis asas pretrunas pašās čigānu organizācijās ne tikai Latvijā, bet arī citur Eiropā. Vairākas organizācijas ir norādījušas, ka dokuments ir nelikumīgs un SRS iniciatīva var dot veltas cerības tiem daudzu Eiropas valstu romiem, kam nav neviena valsts izsniegta oficiāla identifikācijas dokumenta.

Pases vēl vairāk šķels jau tā sašķelto kopienu un veicinās aizvien lielāku diskrimināciju.



Pagājušā gada novembrī, piedaloties trešajā Vienlīdzības sammitā Zviedrijā, pajautāju vairākām romu NVO, kā tās vērtē ideju par īpašajām „romu pasēm”. Daži par to nebija neko dzirdējuši, bet citi teica kategorisku „nē”, jo pases, viņuprāt, vēl vairāk šķels jau tā sašķelto kopienu un veicinās aizvien lielāku diskrimināciju. Tā vietā SRS būtu jācīnās, lai čigāniem, kuri daudzās Eiropas valstīs dzīvo bez jebkādiem identifikācijas dokumentiem, tiktu izsniegtas oficiālās valstu pases vai identifikācijas kartes. Tieši tas, nevis īpašas romu pases veicinātu pilnvērtīgu kopienas iekļaušanos sociālajā un ekonomiskajā dzīvē.

Tā kā pases SRS sāka izdot tikai 2009. gada vidū, pagaidām nav zināms, kādu labumu tās čigāniem devušas, tomēr N.Rudēvičs apgalvo: „Čigāni, kas būs nopirkuši romu pasi, būs tiesīgi bez formalitāšu kārtošanas no Sarkanā Krusta saņemt maznodrošināto pārtikas pakas”.[2] Šādas privilēģijas paredz 2009. gada jūlijā parakstītā SRS un Latvijas Sarkanā Krusta vienošanās. Tajā minēts, ka abas organizācijas veiks kopīgas aktivitātes, lai sekmētu SRS identifikācijas pases atzīšanu Latvijā, un Latvijas Sarkanais Krusts apņemas iekļaut SRS identifikācijas pases turētājus vietējās un starptautiskās sociālā atbalsta programmās. Pasu izdevēji apgalvo, ka šis dokuments ir kontroles instruments, kas ļaus izsekot, lai ikviena programma, palīdzība vai projekts, kas domāts romiem, tiešām nonāktu pie šīs tautības pārstāvjiem.

Tomēr romu pasei nav tikai praktiska funkcija. Tās uzdevums, kā norāda N.Rudēvičs, ir arī mainīt sabiedrības attieksmi pret romiem: „Romu pase ir svarīga tāpēc, ka mūsdienu pases nesatur informāciju par to, kādai nācijai pieder cilvēks. Taču konkretizēt nacionālo piederību īpaši svarīgi ir tieši romiem, kuriem nav savas valsts. Legalizējot sevi, mēs mainīsim attieksmi pret romiem, mēs apstiprināsim savu gatavību zem pašu karoga piedalīties pasaules procesos.”[3]

Doma, ka formāls dokuments spēs izdarīt to, ko līdz šim nav spējušas ne starptautisko organizāciju izstrādātās rekomendācijas, ne arī daudzās Eiropas valstīs īstenotās romu integrācijas programmas, šķiet utopiska.



Zinot, cik izplatīti joprojām ir stereotipi par romiem un cik sliktā sociālekonomiskā situācijā lielākā daļa šīs tautības pārstāvju dzīvo, būtu jāpriecājas, ka SRS beidzot ir apzinājusies savu atbildību šo problēmu risināšanā. Tomēr doma, ka formāls dokuments spēs izdarīt to, ko līdz šim nav spējušas ne starptautisko organizāciju izstrādātās rekomendācijas, ne arī daudzās Eiropas valstīs īstenotās romu integrācijas programmas, šķiet utopiska. Realitātē var izrādīties, ka romu pase līdzīgi kā veikala klienta karte, dod vien nenozīmīgas atlaides pāris reizes gadā, tādējādi radot ilūziju par pārdevēja nesavtīgo vēlmi veicināt klienta labklājību.


Kas notiek Latvijā

Oficiālie statistikas dati liecina, ka Latvijā dzīvo 8582 romi. Tomēr romu organizāciju pārstāvji apgalvo, ka viņu skaits ir gandrīz divas reizes lielāks, proti, ap 15 000, no kuriem, tiesa, pēdējo gadu laikā uz ārzemēm darba meklējumos aizbraukuši ap 10 000 cilvēku. Lai izvairītos no sabiedrības aizspriedumiem, noīrētu dzīvokli vai tiktu pie iecerētā darba, romi bieži vien izvēlas savu etnisko izcelsmi noklusēt un oficiālajos dokumentos norāda citu tautību vai to nenorāda vispār.

Un viss tikai tāpēc, ka, lepojoties ar savu tautību, potenciālie īrnieki godīgi atzīst: „Esam čigāni!”.



Pētījumu dati un intervijas ar romu kopienas pārstāvjiem rāda, ka romi ir viena no visvairāk diskriminācijai un naida noziegumiem pakļautajām grupām Latvijā. Romi saskaras ar diskrimināciju gan darba tirgū un izglītībā, gan mājokļa un citās sociālās dzīves jomās. Vairāk nekā 50% Latvijas iedzīvotāju noteikti nevēlētos dzīvot blakus čigāniem.[4] Darba devēji atzīst, ka šīs tautības pārstāvjiem pastāv liels risks tikt nepieņemtiem darbā tieši savas etniskās piederības dēļ.[5] Bet sociālie darbinieki ir bezspēcīgi atrast dzīvokli ģimenei ar pieciem maziem bērniem par spīti tam, ka tiek garantēta savlaicīga īres un komunālo maksājumu segšana. Un tas viss tikai tāpēc, ka, lepojoties ar savu tautību, potenciālie īrnieki godīgi atzīst: „Esam čigāni!”. Aizvien biežāk tiek ziņots arī par naida noziegumiem, kas vērsti pret romiem. 2009. gadā februārī Rīgas apgabaltiesa notiesāja četrus skinhedus par uzbrukumu divām nepilngadīgām romu meitenēm, bet decembrī tā pati tiesa piesprieda pusgadu ilgu cietumsodu diviem jauniešiem par uzbrukumu romu vīrietim. Abos gadījumos uzbrucēji savu naidu izskaidroja ar to, ka čigāni tirgojot narkotikas.

Apņemšanās sekmēt čigānu integrāciju darba tirgū un mazināt bezdarbu čigānu vidū tā arī palikusi tikai uz papīra.



Situāciju nav spējusi mainīt arī trīs gadus īstenotā valsts programma Čigāni (romi) Latvijā 2007-2009.[6] Lai arī šajā laikā, pateicoties Izglītības iniciatīvu centram, bijuši vairāki nozīmīgi pasākumi izglītības jomā un darbu skolā uzsākuši vairāki programmas laikā sagatavotie skolotāju palīgi — romi, apņemšanās sekmēt čigānu integrāciju darba tirgū un mazināt bezdarbu čigānu vidū tā arī palikusi tikai uz papīra. Trīs gadu laikā nav īstenots neviens no programmā paredzētajiem pasākumiem nodarbinātības jomā. Arī neiecietība un aizspriedumi pret romiem palikuši iepriekšējā līmenī, tāpēc daudzi čigāni pametuši un joprojām pamet Latviju. Viens no iemesliem, kas traucēja īstenot programmā plānotās aktivitātes, bija nepietiekamais valsts finansējums, kas nevienu gadu tā arī netika piešķirts pilnā apjomā un 2009. gadā bija tikai 17% no plānotā.[7] Tāpat programmas īstenošanu būtiski kavēja sadarbības trūkums starp atbildīgajām institūcijām un sociālajiem partneriem, kā arī pašu čigānu NVO nespēja efektīvi definēt un aizstāvēt savas vajadzības.


Papīrs situāciju nemainīs

Čigāniem nav nepieciešams pierādīt ne sev, ne citiem, ka viņi tiešām ir čigāni.



Čigāniem nav nepieciešams pierādīt ne sev, ne citiem, ka viņi tiešām ir čigāni. Arī sabiedrības attieksmi pret čigāniem šī pase nemainīs. Tā negarantēs iespēju atrast darbu, kā sola pases izdevēji, izīrēt dzīvokli vai iegūt kredītu sava uzņēmuma dibināš anai. Tā nenodrošinās aizsardzību pret cilvēku aizspriedumiem vai skinhedu uzbrukumiem. Tāpat romu pase nedrīkst kļūt par pamatu „īpašai” sociālās palīdzības saņemšanai. Šāda palīdzība jāsaņem ikvienam, kam tā tiešām ir nepieciešama, un nav svarīgi, kādas tautības piederīgais vai pases īpašnieks tu esi. Arī speciālajās programmās, kas tiešā veidā paredzētas čigānu sociālekonomiskās situācijas uzlabošanai, kā nosacījumu palīdzības saņemšanai neviens nevar izvirzīt šādu etnisko piederību apliecinošu dokumentu uzrādīšanu. Vienošanās vēstulē ar Latvijas Sarkano Krustu SRS sola izveidot Rīgā Eiropas mēroga romu tautas sociālā atbalsta centru.[8] Tiesa, līdzīgus reģionālos centrus N.Rudēvičs solīja izveidot jau pirms vairāk nekā desmit gadiem, no valsts budžeta šim mērķim saņemot ap 100 000 latu. Ne centru, ne atskaišu valstij par iztērēto naudu nav joprojām.[9] Līdz ar to, jāsecina, ka romu pases ir izdevīgas tikai tās izdevējiem, kas par katru dokumentu no tās saņēmējiem iekasē naudu.

Romu organizācijām būtu pienācis laiks pārskatīt savas darbības prioritātes.



Tāpēc tā vietā, lai šķiestu spēku īpašu pasu ieviešanai, romu organizācijām būtu pienācis laiks pārskatīt savas darbības prioritātes. Neaizmirstot etniskās identitātes stiprināšanu, daudz lielāka uzmanība būtu jāvelta aktīvākai sadarbībai ar pašvaldībām un sociālajiem partneriem. Īpaši tagad, kad valsts programma savu darbību ir beigusi un nav skaidrs, vai un kādas būs turpmākās prioritātes čigānu integrācijas jomā.

_________________________

[1] Nekā Personīgi (22.11.2009), Latvijā par 30 eiro tirgo čigānu pases, kas nav legāls dokuments, http://www.tv3.lv/content/view/6905/282/

[2] E. Veidemane (2010), Rudēvičs: romu pases ir leģitīmas, Neatkarīgā Rīta Avīze (12.01.2010), pieejams: http://zinas.nra.lv/latvija/13531-rudevics-romu-pases-ir-legitimas.htm

[3] E. Veidemane (2010), Rudēvičs: romu pases ir leģitīmas, Neatkarīgā Rīta Avīze (12.01.2010), pieejams: http://zinas.nra.lv/latvija/13531-rudevics-romu-pases-ir-legitimas.htm

[4] Analītisko pētījumu un stratēģiju laboratorija, "Latvijas pilsētu sociāli ekonomiskās attīstības tendences”, Rīga 2007-2008, pieejams: http://www.raplm.gov.lv/uploads/filedir/Nozares/Petijums_Lv_pils_soc_ek_att_tend.pdf

[5] Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte, Daugavpils universitāte, Rīgas Stradiņu universitāte, Ventspils augstskola, Vidzemes augstskola (2007), Latvijas un tās reģionu darba tirgus specifiskās problēmas, 97. lpp., pieejams: http://sf.lm.gov.lv/CMS/modules...

[6] Valsts programma „Čigāni (romi) Latvijā” 2007.-2009. Apstiprināta Ministru Kabinetā 2006. gada 17. oktobrī. Pieejama: http://www.humanrights.org.lv/upload_file...

[7] Atbilstoši Valsts programmai nepieciešamais finansējums programmā paredzēto aktivitāšu īstenošanai 2007. gadā bija 81 007 LVL, 2008. gadā – 137 139 LVL un 2009. gadā – 125 274 LVL. Kopumā programmas rīcības plāna īstenošanai no valsts budžeta atvēlēts finansējums bija 2007. gadā 53 755 LVL jeb 66% no paredzētā finansējuma, 2008. gadā – 49 280 LVL jeb 36% un 2009. gadā – 21 172,52 LVL jeb 17%.

[8] Latvijas Sarkanā Krusta un Starptautiskās Romu Savienības 2009. gada 24. augusta vienošanās.

[9] S. Zankovska-Odiņa (2002), Čigānu politizācija, 10.12.2002, politika.lv. Pieejams: http://www.politika.lv/temas/sabiedribas_integracija/3866/

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